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Thursday, March 7th

Thursday Morning


Basic Diagnostics Workshop


Basic Diagnostics Workshop
Sherri Cox, DVM, National Wildlife Centre, ON        

Baseline diagnostic tests can provide a tremendous amount of information in terms of what might be going on with an animal and provide some idea of prognosis. This laboratory is designed for students interested in learning basic laboratory analysis to help contribute to the animals’ health and well-being. Performing these tests help rehabilitators and veterinarians determine the best course of treatment for the patients in care.


Avian Imping Workshop 


Avian Imping Techniques Workshop
Jeff Meshach, World Bird Sanctuary, MO

The art of imping, or feather repair, is essential for any rehabilitator who has to deal with feather damage, especially in raptors. In birds with injuries that require intensive care and small cages, broken feathers are almost inevitable. Instead of spending the money, effort, and space waiting until the bird molts good feathers, why not imp and get the bird back into the wild quicker? No prerequisite lecture.


Volunteer Session
Diane Nickerson—Moderator


Volunteer Management:  Proven Ways to Use Your Best Resource
Jill Argall, Humane Animal Rescue Wildlife Center, PA 
Jenna Cord, Humane Animal Rescue Wildlife Center, PA

Most wildlife centers use volunteers in some capacity, but are you using them to their full potential? Taking time to evaluate your program can make a world of difference for both the people and the animals. The plan and design of your program are imperative to its success. Recruitment, screening, training, and recognition are all steps that lead to retention. Discussion includes details on the volunteer program at Humane Animal Rescue Wildlife Center and includes topics that are useful to a program of any size.


Recognition & Retention Opportunities for Volunteers & Interns       
Jennifer Baxla, PAWS Wildlife Center, WA    
Handout - added March 29, 2019

Well-trained and engaged volunteers are essential to the wildlife rehabilitation process and the smooth running of a wildlife facility with limited staff. While recruitment is important, and we are always looking to add additional volunteers, a primary focus should be on recognizing current volunteers for their efforts and providing enriching experiences and continuing education opportunities to keep them interested in the field and the organization. This lecture focuses on efforts PAWS has made in these areas for both volunteers and unpaid interns, while providing examples of creative ways we engage them in our work.


Working with Volunteers of All Abilities      
Jenna Cord, Humane Animal Rescue Wildlife Center, PA           
Jill Argall, Humane Animal Rescue Wildlife Center, PA 

We all know that being a volunteer at a wildlife center can encompass a lot of physical labor, but it takes many jobs to make a center run smoothly. Have you ever considered opening your program to differently abled volunteers? Being open to bringing diversity into your volunteer group can be a wonderful and useful change. Thinking a little outside the box can provide a valuable experience for everyone involved. Discussion includes how Humane Animal Rescue Wildlife Center works with local groups of both teens and adults with a variety of disabilities.


Getting the Most out of Eagle Scout & Gold Award Service Projects
Roger Holloway, World Bird Sanctuary, MO  

This presentation highlights all of the steps involved in having an Eagle Scout or Gold Award candidate complete a service project to benefit your operation. Discussion includes examples of suitable projects, timelines, communication, and realistic expectations. While working with younger individuals presents challenges, with the right guidance and preparation, the potential to have useful and long-lasting projects implemented can be a reality for you and your facility.


Online Training: Improving Staff & Volunteer Knowledge       
Jacqueline Sandberg, Dane County Humane Society’s Wildlife Center, WI     

Obtaining proficiency and expertise in the field of wildlife rehabilitation requires intensive study, practice, and training. Wildlife rehabilitators are largely dependent on staff or volunteers to manage larger centers or home-based operations. Training people through the use of oral presentations, written manuals, or hands-on instruction takes significant time and effort. In 2016, DCH’s Wildlife Center created individual wildlife training courses using a free, online platform: Open Learning Management. Since then, it has improved volunteer skills, increased personnel knowledge and retention, and saved significant amounts of time and money.


Reuniting Session
Bettina Bowers—Moderator


Reuniting & Wild-fostering Birds         
Anne Miller, AL

When healthy young birds are accidentally separated from their parents, wildlife rehabilitators can best help by reuniting them with their own parents, or by wild-fostering them to another breeding pair of the same species. Success is based on an understanding of the nesting behavior of the particular species. Cavity or open-cup nest? Territorial or colonial breeder? Precocial or altricial? How long are the young birds dependent on parents? Examples of reuniting methods for raptors are presented to demonstrate the basic techniques of reuniting, along with brief discussions of strategies for reuniting passerines and waterfowl.


Mother Knows Best: Reuniting Mammals        
Laura Simon, Connecticut Wildlife Rehabilitators Association, CT
John Griffin, Humane Society of the United States

You want to reunite, but what if the mother will not take her baby back? Uncertainty about the strength of the maternal bond is one of the principal reasons given by wildlife rehabilitators for failing to reunite healthy juveniles. The presenters have had many years of experience reuniting raccoons, skunks, opossums, and squirrels in an urban setting, and show, through videos, the amazing persistence and determination of the maternal bond in a variety of species. These video clips also demonstrate basic reuniting steps as well as critical considerations for successful reunions. Discussion includes some of the factors that affect the maternal behavior of different mammal species, especially those related to successful reuniting and wild-fostering.


Organizing Your Program to Make Reuniting Your Priority    
Laura Simon, Connecticut Wildlife Rehabilitators Association, CT
Anne Miller, AL                        

What does it take to change rehabilitators’ attitudes about reuniting so it is a priority during baby season? Besides the critical benefits to the young animals, reuniting provides real benefits for over-loaded rehabilitators, allowing them to focus their skills and resources on animals that truly need their help. The presentation offers detailed recommendations for creating a practical reuniting program, both for centers and for individual rehabilitators. The presentation offers effective psychological approaches, plus vital problem diagnosis and persuasion tips that help attendees turn around even that most stubborn caller clutching a newly kidnapped wild animal in her arms. We need a new paradigm where rehabilitation success is measured not just in terms of intake/release statistics, but also in the number of animals successfully reunited and kept out of rehabilitation facilities.


Technology to the Rescue: Essential Tools for Successful Reuniting 
John Griffin, Humane Society of the United States
Laura Simon, Connecticut Wildlife Rehabilitators Association, CT
Anne Miller, AL                        

When you are reuniting wildlife, you need special equipment, tools, and technology to make sure the infants are safe and healthy while waiting for the mother to return, and to monitor the reunion process.  This interactive workshop offers participants a chance to see and handle a variety of reunion nests and nest boxes for raptors and songbirds, as well as reunion boxes for mammals, heaters, and other reuniting aids. Information about how to make inexpensive but reliable equipment is also offered. Participants can examine various game cameras and closed-circuit TV cameras for follow-up observation to make sure reunions really do succeed.


Thursday Afternoon 

Basic Parasitology Workshop


Basic Parasitology Workshop 
Sarah Reich, DVM, University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, IL
Samantha Sander, DVM, University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, IL   

Wild animals present to a rehabilitation setting with a variety of internal and external parasites. Many of these can be easily diagnosed with the aid of a microscope and some basic supplies. Skills covered in this hands-on workshop includes ectoparasite testing (tape preparations, impression smears, and skin scrapes) and endoparasite testing (wet mounts and fecal flotations). Participants learn how to acquire samples, prepare slides, and how to use the provided microscopes to interpret results.  


Reptile Session
Sherri Cox, DVM—Moderator


Snake Care 101
Heather Freeman, Woodlands Wildlife Refuge, NJ     

Snakes are some of the most misunderstood animals. It is amazing and inspiring to witness interest and caring increase for these unique species. Woodlands Wildlife Refuge is permitted to care for snakes, including venomous species, and we have seen a major increase in snake rehabilitation needs since 2013. There are 23 species of snakes in New Jersey including two venomous species. Not all reptiles are the same. Snakes have specific needs based on species, age, and injury when it comes to housing, nutrition, lighting, temperature control, and more. This session covers basic care and housing for common snake species, common intake reasons, and interesting cases.


Turtle Shell Repair: Let’s Get Crackin’ 
Julia Becker, DVM, Tippecanoe Animal Hospital, IN   

Topics include turtle basics from intake to endpoint. This overview includes an exam of the turtle at intake for assessment of overall health and severity of injuries to determine prognosis. Triage priorities covered include hydration, pain management, wound care and antibiotic usage. Anesthesia protocol options are briefly mentioned, as anesthesia is required for the more invasive shell repair methods. Discussion includes a comparison of several shell repair techniques step-by-step with pros and cons of each and provides a list of recommended supplies, equipment, and reference resources.


The Approach to the Head Trauma Turtle        
Leslie Reed, DVM, Wildlife Rehabilitation Center of Minnesota, MN    

Head trauma is one of the most common injuries wild turtles experience after being struck by a vehicle. A full assessment of the patient’s neurological status, soft tissue and skeletal trauma of the head and face, and feasibility of repair must be made on admission or shortly thereafter. This lecture discusses the most common presentations of the head trauma turtle, how to perform a neurological exam, fracture and wound assessment, and euthanasia recommendations. Basic facial fracture repair techniques are also be discussed.

Turtle Workshop Lecture
Mark Mitchell, DVM, MS, PhD, DECZM, Louisiana State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, LA

This lecture provides participants with an overview of basic turtle rehabilitation skills, including how to complete a thorough physical examination, develop a differential list, and institute appropriate therapy. Specific reviews of infectious diseases of chelonians, therapeutic planning (fluids and other medications), and nutrition for captive chelonians (esophagostomy tubes) are discussed. This lecture is a prerequisite for the turtle workshop.                                      


Post-release Session
Sponsored by Focus Wildlife
 and Oiled Wildlife Care Network, Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center, U.C. Davis
Rebecca Duerr, DVM—Moderator


Innovations in Wildlife Rehabilitation: Bird Banding, Research, & More!         
Halley Buckanoff, North Carolina Zoo VHS Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, NC
Renee Schott, DVM, Wildlife Rehabilitation Center of Minnesota, MN
Handout - modified March 29, 2019

To improve upon our care for our wildlife patients it is important to participate and/or conduct research. Knowledge gained from research is beneficial in understanding veterinary medical care, husbandry, and nutrition, as well as the potential for post-release survival. This presentation reviews how to find out what studies are currently being done, how to reach out to other institutions/facilities/universities to participate in research, what some recent studies have helped us to understand, as well as an in-depth discussion regarding bird banding in wildlife rehabilitation.


Post-release Monitoring & Its Potential Effects on Rehabilitation        
Gail Kratz, Rocky Mountain Raptor Program, CO            

While everyone loves a happy ending, knowing what happens to that bird you have invested time and energy in rehabilitating and releasing is incredibly important. Post-release monitoring through banding and then examining band return data can provide useful information that can be applied to rehabilitation. Discussion highlights two species whose band return information was instrumental in changing rehabilitation and release techniques for success!


Releasing Wild Animals & Considerations for Post-Release Survival
Lisa Fosco, Walden’s Puddle, Wildlife Center of Greater Nashville, TN
Handout - added March 21, 2019

In wildlife rehabilitation, there is much focus on all aspects of the rehabilitation process but very little focus on the release plan. Captive-reared animals and adults with no defined territory are very vulnerable as they enter or re-enter their wild home. With the goal of post-release survival, this presentation includes new data and discusses some of the considerations for releasing our common species as well as case studies on patients with more complicated concerns.


Post-release Monitoring of Oiled Wildlife: Novel Technologies Workshop Lecture    
Kyra Mills, UC Davis Oiled Wildlife Care Network, CA     

Technology has come a long way since scientists first started using transmitters and data loggers 40+ years ago. This lecture provides an overview of the types of devices currently on the market, considerations for choosing the right equipment, and what information each unit can provide for monitoring rehabilitated oil spill patients. We also discuss different attachment methods and placement locations of equipment, including their pros and cons. This lecture is a prerequisite for the Post-release Monitoring workshop.


Post-release Survival of Oiled & Non-oiled Aquatic Birds        
Rebecca Duerr, DVM, MPVM, PhD, International Bird Rescue Center, CA          

International Bird Rescue has been banding oiled and non-oiled rehabilitated aquatic birds in California since the 1970s. We examined post-release re-encounter information from birds banded during 1997-2011, with re-sightings included through October 2017. During the study period, 23,061 bands were applied to 123 aquatic avian species. Fifty-eight species returned 1-725 re-encounters and 65 species showed zero re-encounters. There were 1,923 re-encountered individual birds from the 58 species: 205 were petroleum-oiled, 1718 were non-petroleum-oiled birds (rehabilitated for other reasons), and one of unknown oiling status. Twenty percent of re-encountered birds were alive at the most recent encounter. This talk explores longevity by species and oiling status.         


Administration Session
Lisa Smith—Moderator


Building an Ethical, Professional, & Sustainable Organization
Yvonne Wallace Blane, Fellow Mortals Wildlife Hospital, WI
Jean Lord, PhD, Pine View Wildlife Rehabilitation and Education Center, WI

Fellow Mortals and Pine View were founded in the 1980s. Originally operated out of the founders’ homes, both organizations now run professional wildlife hospitals and education programs funded entirely by donations. While they differ in many ways, their founding principles are the same: an ethical and professional approach to wildlife care, and a commitment to the environment and the human communities they serve. The purpose of the presentation is to encourage other rehabilitators to ‘reach for the dream’ of building a wildlife organization while providing tips, information, and encouragement based on decades of shared experience.


Starting from Scratch, Sorta    
Hilary DeVries, New Mexico Wildlife Center, NM   

Moving to work at a new facility in a new state can be overwhelming, but what if you had a chance to start your own hospital? This lecture highlights the surprises, challenges, and everything in between when starting over – and includes first-person experiences when the speaker went through this very process. This presentation helps prepare other rehabilitators who may be thinking of expanding or are in the process of starting a wildlife hospital.


Becoming a Media Ambassador         
Amanda Nicholson, Wildlife Center of Virginia, VA
Handout 1
Handout 2

Speaking with the media is something that many wildlife rehabilitators and educations are faced with at some point in their career, but it makes many of us uncomfortableor maybe even downright terrified! Learn some tips and tricks that may not make you a media expert overnight, but give you some practical, attainable goals while practicing this skill!


From Hobby to Profession: Changing the Way the World Views Rehabilitation       
Joshua Saranpaa, Wildlife Center of the North Coast, OR 

Many people do not understand what it is that wildlife rehabilitators do. They think that this work is just a hobby to occupy our time, as opposed to a profession that requires skills, knowledge, and a big heart (and oftentimes a strong stomach). We know that wildlife rehabilitation is hard workboth mentally and physically. In this lecture, we discuss different, simple things that can be done to help build the professional image of your operation, and subsequently enhance the credibility of your operation.


Pre-emptive Media Reduced Seasonal Influx of Orphaned (Misplaced) Owls
Thomas deMaar, DVM, Gladys Porter Zoo, TX          

Deer blinds are common features in south Texas landscapes. Four walls, roof, and elevated openings make blinds perfect barn owl homes. The start of deer season was usually announced by the arrival of sad-looking camouflaged individuals holding a hissing, clacking box. Would it be more efficient to prevent the arrival of these chicks? We disseminated the following message at every opportunity, “At the end of deer season please secure blind openings.” Local newspapers were asked to circulate the message. Television channels were invited to barn owl releases to repeat the same message. In successive years the number of barn owls presented for care has reduced.


Rehabilitation in Retirement: A Perfect Match  
Pamela & William Lefferts, Ferncroft Wildlife Rescue, CT  
Handout 2 - added March 15, 2019

Pam and Bill Lefferts are retired after many years in the field of education. Always lovers of animals and looking for volunteer opportunities, they found their niche as CT Wildlife Rehabilitators. They knew nothing about “rehabbers” but fell in love with this job. They own and operate a nonprofit wildlife rescue facility. This is a perfect workshop for people interested in learning about Wildlife Rehabilitation and what it entails to prepare. An interesting and entertaining slide presentation of preparing a rescue habitat, supplies, cost and time commitment.

Thursday Evening


Poster Session
Sponsored by Wildlife Rehabilitation MD (WRMD)

Erica Miller, DVM—Moderator


DNA Identification of Coccidian Oocytes from Passerine Feces in Newark, DE
Natalia  Ochoa, Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research, DE

Few published studies exist on parasites of wild passerines in rehabilitation facilities. This study surveyed helminths and coccidia from passerines at Tri-State Bird Rescue & Research in Newark, Delaware. In summer 2018, fecal flotations were conducted on samples collected from passerine cages, and eggs classified (nematode, cestode, coccidia). Coccidia were most common, often found in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), American robins (Turdus migratorius) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula). To determine the coccidia species, DNA was isolated from fecal samples, primers were designed to target Eimeria species, and DNA was sequenced and blasted against known coccidian species in passerines.


VAC Therapy for the Management of Multiple Wounds in an Eastern Ratsnake (Elaphe alleghaniensis)
Annabelle Vigneault, QC

Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy has been shown to accelerate wound healing in humans and has been described in a few veterinary case reports on mammals and chelonians. An eastern ratsnake (Elaphe alleghaniensis) was presented with three severe wounds and despite the limited literature about the use of VAC system on snakes, this technique was used at the Wildlife Center of Virginia to manage this patient’s wounds. This method resulted in a fast healing rate, healthy granulation tissue and good contraction of the wounds. However, the overall health of the patient deteriorated, and, after a few weeks of treatments, the VAC system was removed.


Bird Boom Box: An Educational Game for All Ages    
Tracy Dawson, Marine Science Center, FL
Joshua Eckroth, Marine Science Center, FL

This game teaches kids and adults how to identify birds by their calls. The box has buttons and internal electronics. Various sets of bird photos and their common names are arranged so that each of the five buttons corresponds to each of five birds. The player presses a button and listens to a random bird’s call. Then the player guesses which bird made the call. The game is currently used by two centers in their educational departments and public events. Data and other insights may be downloaded for analysis that shows which birds’ calls are most often confused.


Case Report on the Feather Imping of a Roadside Hawk (Rupornis magnirostris)        
Julia Silva Seixas, The Pennsylvania State University, PA; Parque Nacional da Serra dos
Órgãos, Brazil  

Imping is a commonly practiced procedure in the rehabilitation of birds of prey. It is aimed at quickly restoring the animal’s ability to fly, consequently reducing its stay in captivity. The case involved a roadside hawk delivered to Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos. The male individual had all the primary and secondary flight feathers of its right wing anthropogenically cut and lacked human imprinting. The materials used included insulin needles, toothpicks, and araldite glue. To avoid sedation, a cloth covered the hawk’s head to keep it under control. The animal’s recovery period was shortened from approximately four months to 15 days.


Re-mounting a Natural Cavity for Renesting of Avian Species
Andrea Howey-Newcomb, Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research, DE

In the summer of 2018, Tri-State Bird Rescue & Research successfully renested two healthy families, Eastern screech-owl (Megascops asio) and Northern flicker (Colaptes auratus), by trimming the still intact natural cavity from an otherwise damaged tree and mounting that cavity onto a nearby tree.  The goal of sharing this experience is to decrease the number of healthy hatch-year birds being raised in captivity and increase awareness of techniques for getting babies back out into the wild with their parents. This poster details this process and provide tips for implementing this renesting technique.  


Reuniting Nestling Songbirds: Creating Substitute Bird Nests
Bonnie Boime 

This presentation starts with the four “R’s” of wildlife rehabilitation: Reunite whenever possible. Rescue when necessary. Rehabilitate to the best of our ability. Releaseour ultimate goal. This poster focuses on the first “R” which is vitally important and often the most overlooked. Reuniting healthy baby wild animals with their parents is best for the baby, the parents, the wildlife rehabilitator, and the other animals in our care. It is also best for the caller. Teaching the community to keep wild families together (when appropriate) not only best serves everyone involved, it empowers people to solve similar problems in the future and to teach others to do the same.


Lights Out Columbus: Saving our Songbirds  
Stormy Gibson

This year is the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act in the United States, which provides protections for birds traveling across political boundaries and international borders. There is an increasing threat in contemporary cities that causes significant fatalities during migration seasons. Millions of birds migrate through Ohio during peak migration periods in spring and fall, with night migration a significant threat for those moving through urban corridors. Lights aimed at the sky or on tall buildings can cause disorientation, causing the birds to strike windows or circle buildings until they fall from exhaustion. The initial steps of the project will be to engage urban stakeholders, as well as collect and rehabilitate songbirds injured in downtown Columbus during the spring and fall migration seasons of 2019. Data will be analyzed to minimize or eliminate human-induced threats to these Neotropical migratory birds.


Veterinary Perspectives Panel
Jennifer Convy—Moderator


Veterinary Perspectives on the Management of Selected Infectious Diseases  
Samantha Sander, DVM, University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, IL
Sarah Reich, DVM, University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, IL 
Erica Miller, DVM, Pennsylvania Game Commission, DE
Nicki Rosenhagen, DVM, Progressive Animal Welfare Society, WA
Renee Schott, DVM, Wildlife Rehabilitation Center of Minnesota, MN

The management strategies and ethics of medical intervention for many chronic infectious diseases present within wildlife populations can be quite controversial. In this session, wildlife veterinarians from different regions of the country discuss their approaches and recommendations for these cases, highlighting regional differences as well as reflecting on the implications of these interventions. Diseases discussed include mange, mycoplasmosis, and poxvirus infection as well as others as time allows. Audience participation is welcome.


Disease Session
Emily Meredith—Moderator


West Nile Virus: A Very Difficult Definitive Diagnosis
David Scott, DVM, Carolina Raptor Center, NC

West Nile virus (WNV) infection is common in many wildlife species. However, a definitive diagnosis is difficult to achieve. Several diagnostic tests are available but each has advantages and disadvantages. Thirty cases in various raptors with confirmed or suspected WNV infection were included in this study. Various diagnostic tests were run and the results were compared using histopathology of the brain as the gold standard. Ante-mortem diagnosis is rare. While most tests are relatively specific, the sensitivity is low so a negative result has very poor diagnostic value. All suspect cases should be treated early and aggressively.


Mange in Foxes: Following the Evolution of an Epizootic       
Lynn Miller, PhD, South Florida Wildlife Center, FL

Sarcoptic mange has probably always been present in the fox populations on Cape Cod; however, the region appears to have been experiencing an epizootic event over the past four years. The impact is seen on many levels, with unexpected issues affecting wildlife rehabilitation. This presentation explores all the aspects of this event from the impact for wildlife, pet dogs, and human welfare to species level issues and a novel treatment.

A New Approach for Treating Avian Botulism
Marie Travers Bird Ally X, CA
January Bill, Bird Ally X, CA 

In August and September 2018, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuge Complex responded to an avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum) outbreak that affected thousands of birds. Bird Ally X (BAX) was contacted shortly after to manage the rehabilitation of live birds collected. When staff initially arrived at the remote field outpost, there were already birds on site and few supplies available. With a response staff of two, support from refuge staff, and the assistance of volunteers and interns, BAX staff were able to create a functional wildlife hospital and treated 474 birds, successfully releasing over 80% of patients that survived the first 24 hours. This required modifying standard botulism treatment plans to a more hands-off approach where birds were allowed to self-hydrate in pools. This system proved extremely successful and resulted in reduced handling and stress for patients and a more manageable workload for staff.


Avian Session
Sponsored by Tri-State Bird Rescue & Research


Can You Outsmart the Corvid in Your Care?
Elaine Friedman, Corvid Connection, CA 

Corvids!?! Intelligent, resourceful, not so easy to rehabilitate. This lecture highlights the habits and natural history of the crows, ravens, magpies, and jays that you might encounter in your work as a rehabilitator. It also familiarizes you with the pitfalls of caring for the various corvid species.


Raising Orphaned Wood Ducks          
Judy Neiman, TreeHouse Wildlife Center, IL
Adele Moore, TreeHouse Wildlife Center, IL       

Raising orphaned wood ducks (Aix sponsa) presents its own special set of problems. Wood ducks are very nervous and can be reluctant eaters. If conditions are not exactly perfect, they will not settle down and eat and many simply starve to death. Over the past eighteen years, TreeHouse’s wood duck release rate has consistently averaged around 80%. The initial setups are inexpensive and easy to clean, move, and store. This presentation covers basic husbandry procedures only. No medical treatments or procedures are addressed herein.


The Use of Tuning Forks to Aid Post-operative Physical Therapy in Raptors   
David Scott, DVM, Carolina Raptor Center, NC

Tuning forks can be used as an adjunct to traditional physical therapy in orthopedic cases. Low-frequency energy is applied via mechanical vibration and is similar to the use of therapeutic ultrasound or cold laser therapy. Fifteen cases in various raptor species with humerus fractures were included in this study. Traditional passive range-of-motion (ROM) exercises were augmented with a 128 Hz tuning fork. ROM was scored both subjectively and objectively with angles of extension recorded during each session. Of the 15 cases, 10 (67%) were noted to have probable or definite improvement after the tuning fork therapy was begun.


Ambassador Roundtable
Sponsored by Michele Goodman and Elaine Thrune (co-sponsors)
Diane Nickerson—Moderator


Selection of Education Ambassador Roundtable         
Jackie Kozlowski, Tracy Aviary, UT
Gail Buhl, Partners for Wildlife, MN
Melissa Moore, New Mexico Wildlife Center, NM
Debbie Sykes, Nashville Wildlife Conservation Center, TN    
Handout 1 - added 3/14/19
Handout 2 - added 3/14/19

Although it is often overlooked, selecting appropriate candidates for education ambassadors is one of the most important steps in successful programming using live animals. This roundtable is an open discussion of the animal welfare concerns and considerations involved in making this important decision, with a focus on target species, and evaluating individuals. There is also a special focus on the suitability of owls as ambassador candidates.