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The Wild Mammals of Missouri

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The Wild Mammals of Missouri

By Charles W. Schwartz and Elizabeth R. Schwartz

Edited by Debby K. Frantz and Victoria L. Jackson

2016 - 426 pp

First published in 1959, The Wild Mammals of Missouri has become the definitive guide to identify these animals and provide information about them. The drawings by Charles Schwartz capture the spirit of the animal as well as being technically accurate. This book has remained popular as a college textbook and for general reference since it was first published. There have been two previous revisions, one in 1981 and also in 2001. The book has grown from sixty-three full species accounts to seventy-two in this most recent edition.


Table of Contents

List of Species Illustrations      viii

Foreword by Robert L. Ziehmer     ix

Preface to the Third Revised Edition     xi

Preface to the Second Revised edition     xiii

Preface to the First revised edition     xv

Preface to the First edition     xvii

1.  Introducing the Mammals     1

     Some Characteristics of Mammals     2

     Where Mammals Live     5

     Ecological Sections of Missouri     6

     About the Range Maps     9

     Social Communication and Behavior     9

     Host-Parasite relationships     11

     Age determination     12

     Mammal Signs     13

     Size of Mammals     15

     Human-Wild Mammal Conflicts     16

     How Mammals are Named     17

     List of the Wild mammals of Missouri     19

     How to Identify Mammals by the Keys     20

     Key to the Orders by Whole Adult Animals     20

     Key to the Orders by Skulls of Adults     21

     General References     23


2.  Pouched Mammals (Opossums)

     (Order Didelphimorphia)     27


     Opossums (Family Didelphidae)     27

           Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)     27


3.  Shrew-form Mammals (Order Soricomorpha)     37

      Key to the Species by Whole Adult Animals     37

      Key to the Species by Skulls of Adults     38

      Shrews (Family Soricidae)     38

      General References     38

           Cinereus Shrew (Sorex cinereus)     38

           Southeastern Shrew (Sorex Longirostris)     42

           Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda)     45

           Southern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina carolinensis)     45

           Elliot’s Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina hylophaga)     45

           North American Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)     52

           Moles and Relatives (Family Talpidae)     56

           Eastern Mole (Scalopus aquaticus)     56


4.  Flying Mammals (Order Chiroptera)     63

     Key to the Species by Whole Adult Animals     64

     Key to the Species by Skulls of Adults     66

     Evening Bats (Family Vespertilionidae)     67

     General References     66

          Mouse-eared Bats (Myotis spp.)     67

          Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus)     67

          Gray Myotis (Myotis grisescens)     77

          Southeastern Myotis (Myotis austroriparius)     81

          Northern Long-eared Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis)     83

          Indiana Myotis (Myotis sodalist)     86

          Eastern Small-footed Myotis (Myotis leibii)     89

          Silver-haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)     91

          Tri-colored Bat (Perimyotis subflavus)     94

          Big Brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)     98

          Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis)     102

          Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus)     106

          Evening Bat (Nycticeius humeralis)     109

          Townsend’s Big-eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii)     113

          Rafinesque’s Big-eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)     117


5.  Armored Mammals (Order Cingulata)     121


     Armadillos (Family Dasypodidae)     121


6.  Hare-shaped Mammals (Order Lagomorpha)     127


      Key to the Species by Whole Adult Animals     127

      Key to the Species by Skulls of Adults     127

      Hares and Rabbits (Family Leporidae)     128

      General References     128

          Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus)     128

          Swamp Rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus)     139

          Black-tailed Jackrabbit (Lepus californicus)     144


7.  Gnawing Mammals (Order Rodentia)     151


      Key to the Species by Whole Adult Animals     151

       Key to the Species by Skulls of Adults     153

      Squirrels, Chipmunks, Marmots, and Relatives (Family Sciuridae)     155

           Eastern Chipmunk (Tamias striatus)     155

           Woodchuck (Marmota monax)     162

           Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus)     168

           Franklin’s Ground Squirrel (Poliocitellus franklinii)     174

           Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)     179

           Eastern Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger)     187

           Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans)     194

      Pocket Gophers (Family Geomyidae)     201

           Plains Pocket Gopher (Geomys bursarius)     201

      Pocket Mice and Relatives (Family Heteromyidae)     207

           Plains Pocket Mouse (Perognathus flavescens)     207

      Beavers (Family Castoridae)     210

           American Beaver (Castor Canadensis)     211

      New World Rats and Mice, Voles, and Relatives (Family Cricetidae)     219

           Marsh Rice Rat (Oryzomys palustris)     219

           Plains Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys montanus)     223

           Western Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis)     224

           Fulvous Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens)     229

           Peromyscus spp. Mice     231

           Deer Mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)     231

           White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)     239

           Cotton Mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus)     242

           Texas Mouse (Peromyscus attwateri)     243

           Golden Mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli)     245

           Hispid Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus)     248

           Eastern Woodrat (Neotoma floridana)     253

           Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus)     258

           Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster)     261

           Woodland Vole (Microtus pinetorum)     267

           Common Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)     272

           Southern Bog Lemming (Synaptomys cooperi)     280

      Old World Rats, Mice, and Relatives (Family Muridae)     284

           Black Rat (Rattus rattus)     285

           Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus)     287

            House Mouse (Mus musculus)     293

      Jumping Mice and Relatives (Family Dipodidae)     298

           Meadow Jumping Mouse (Zapus hudsonius)     298


 8.  Flesh-eating Mammals (Order Carnivora)     305


      Key to the Species by Whole Adult Animals     306

       Key to the Species by Skulls of Adults     307

      Dogs, Coyotes, Foxes, and Relatives (Family Canidae)     308

           Coyote (Canis latrans)     308

           Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes)     315

           Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)     322

      Bears (Family Ursidae)     326

           American Black Bear (Ursus americanus)     326

      Raccoons and Relatives (Family Procyonidae)     333

           Raccoon (Procyon lotor)     333

      Weasels, Badgers, Otters, Minks, and Relatives (Family Mustelidae)     340

           Least Weasel (Mustela nivalis)     341

           Long-tailed Weasel (Mustela frenata)     344

           American Mink (Neovison vison)     350

           American Badger (Taxidea taxus)     356

           North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis)     362

      Skunks and Relatives (Family Mephitidae)     369

            Eastern Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius)     369

            Striped Skunk (Mephitis mephitis)     375

      Cats (Family Felidae)     382

            Mountain Lion (Puma concolor)     382

            Bobcat (Lynx rufus)     387


9.  Even-toed Hoofed Mammals (Order Artiodactyla)     393


      Key to the Species by Whole Adult Animals     394

      Key to the Species by Skulls of Adults     394

      Deer, Elk, and Relatives (Family Cervidae)     395

           White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)     395

           Elk (Cervus elaphus)     410


10. Other Wild Mammals ((Extirpated or Rare Visitors)     417


       American Bison (Bison bison)     417

       Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)     418

       Red Wolf (Canis rufus)     418

       White-tailed Jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii)     419

       Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)     420

       Big Free-tailed Bat (Tadarida macrotis)     420

       Seminole Bat (Lasiurus seminolus)     420

       Nutria (Myocastor coypus)     420


       Index     423